A trick that falls further than 45 degrees from vertical becomes part of the Invert category. There are two sub-groups: horizontal twists reach 90° inversion, and flips reach a full 180° inversion (give or take as much as 45° for either one.) Every invert trick has three different ways to jump, and can land on one or both legs. They are mostly labelled with nicknames, making it crucial to understand their definitions.
All invert tricks begin from one of the four stances, and rotate in some direction until they return to a vertical (standing) posture. Stance and direction must be defined together, since a position by itself does not indicate whether the rotation will occur forwards, backwards, or sideways. All of the examples on the invert guide assume the direction is to the right, which means facing to the right is the position from which to begin a forward rotation (Front Flip.) Facing to the the left is the position for a backward rotation (Back Flip.) These two positions become Frontside and Backside, though there are two stances in-between which are positions for sideways rotations (Side Flips.) These are labelled Inside and Outside stances, based on the orientation of the performer; a tricker who spins to the left will rotate sideways to his left as an "Inside Flip," and rotate sideways to his right as an "Outside Flip." Use the gold button above to change between real life and animated example videos.
An off-axis posture, defined by the head being below the hips or at the same height from the ground as the hips.
A sub-category of inverts which are horizontal (parallel to the ground.)
A sub-category of inverts which are noticeably below horizontal (135°-180° from vertical posture.)
A measure of one's position, used to define invert tricks and count rotation.
A reference to which way the invert rotation occurs.
The direction (right or left) towards which vertical spin would be performed.
A method of jumping into an invert trick (Sequential, Singular, or Standard.)
Measured by counting stances in order from takeoff to landing (spin,) or by the degree of offset from vertical (inversion.)
Any of four stances counted in order, used to measure rotation (Complete, Hyper, Mega, Semi.)
A group of twist tricks which begin from the same stance (raiz, butterfly twist, takuraba, and corkscrew.)
Invert Takeoff Types by Stance
Inverts can leave the ground from each stance in three ways: in order one leg at a time (Sequential,) from one leg only (Singular,) or from both feet together (Standard.) Inverts of any kind can begin directly from their stance, by using the standard takeoff "Pop." The alternate takeoffs are instead different for each stance, and they work differently going into twists than into flips. Frontside and Backside twist tricks can leave the ground in sequence (right leg then left,) or from the left leg only. Frontside and Backside flips however can takeoff one leg at a time in either order, or from the left or right leg only. The flips that have the same sequence and singular takeoff leg as the twists from Frontside and Backside are the ones commonly used from those stances, while the opposite order & takeoff leg are generally reserved for the Inside & Outside flips. The Inside and Outside twist tricks also use the opposite sequence (left leg then right.) The following examples demonstrate the primary alternate takeoff from each stance, with the less common form labelled in parenthesis.
Counting Rotation from Takeoff to Landing
Rotation is counted on two axis: inversion and spin. The amount of inversion is usually the easiest to recognize, since a twist trick goes horizontal (half inversion) while a flip will go upside-down (full inversion.) The spin of any invert then is measured by observing the starting and ending stances. Rotation in the form of spin will occur in a repeating order from Backside, to Inside, to Frontside, to Outside until landing. This means that for any flip that lands in the same stance in which it started, there is no (spin) rotation. For a flip that lands one stance up in the order from where it starts, there is a 90° rotation. Count two stances from the starting position to reach 180 degrees, and so on with each additional stance adding 90° to the total. Once 360° is reached, the pattern will start over.
Twist tricks also build rotation in the same order as flips, but their nicknames are modified by landing tags instead of numbered degrees. By default each group of twist tricks from the same stance (called a "twist element") is measured to Backside stance. Note that since each element begins from a different stance, rotating them all to Backside adds a different degree of rotation for each (rotational values are included on each element page.) This default landing is called "Complete," though it is implied in the nickname of the twist (usually called just "corkscrew," rather than "complete cork.") The other landings in order are "Hyper" for Inside, "Mega" for Frontside, and "Semi" for Outside. Each of these three landing tags gets included in the description of the twist (like "hyper cork," or "mega cork,") and the Semi landing begins the next rotation upwards into doubles ("semi double cork.") Both flips and twists can return to the ground in order or on both feet as they reach their landing stance, and in most cases the landings are best recognized when one leg arrives first.
The Four Twist Elements (With Base)
With the understanding of how invert tricks are defined, you can identify them by stance and sub-category. Remember that each stance shares a base flip and matching horizontal twist element which both begin from that position, regardless of takeoff.